So what does referencing include?
A. In-text citations, that could take three forms:
- Paraphrasing, in which you keep the original author’s >B. A reference list at the end of the essay, which includes details such as:
- Date of publication
- Publisher and put of publication (for books)
- Journal name, issue and volume(for journals)
- Internet address or doi (digital object >
Referencing is integral to academic essay writing and really shouldn’t be considered as an ‘add-on’. You ensure 100% accuracy when you are referencing, always use a referencing guide to help.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you’ll be expected to use only sources that are academic. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or otherwise not.
The APA is used by the chocolate essay type of referencing, that will be very easy to distinguish through the Harvard Author-Date System, whilst the format is different:
|Try and achieve a balance between both forms of in text-references in your essay writing.|
Into the APA style of referencing, the reference list has conventions that are certain you have to also follow. Below are a few examples through the chocolate essay:
|Don’t make referencing something you do just as an proofreading custom writings or editing activity. Include your in-text citations and reference list in your first draft.|
An website that is excellent help with your APA referencing could be the APA Interactive tool at Massey University.
Leave yourself time that is enough have a look at your essay over and over again. For a 1000 word essay you may need at the very least 3 days to redraft your essay.
|Always save each draft as a separate file; then you can certainly observe how your essay develops and improves.|
Here you will find the types of questions you need to think about:
It is possible to glance at other checklists similar to this one on editing your personal work.
Let’s observe how the writer of the chocolate essay redrafted their original introduction:
Now compare the aforementioned because of the draft that is final
Since Spanish explorers cut back chocolate from the new world, chocolate consumption is now a phenomenon that is worldwide. In the beginning, chocolate, a derivative of this cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. However, chocolate’s popularity that is inherent not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested because of the title. The realities of chocolate tend to be more down seriously to earth; a number of these realities will likely be addressed in this essay. Chocolate has chemical properties that can influence mood and there’s evidence that is possible some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat because of the argument that, in certain instances, chocolate may very well be a drug in the place of a food. Moreover, you have the probability of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. Thus, it’s going to be argued that despite chocolate’s effect that is positive some cases on mood while the cardiovascular system it has also been associated with addiction and obesity.
Invest some time and get careful when redrafting—it will be worth it!
How will you write in an academic way?
Your lecturers may wish to hear your ‘voice’ because they read your essay.
Imagine your essay as a type or kind of story. You may be the storyteller that is principal the inner voice of the writer, leading the reader through to your conclusion.
During the whole story, you can find different voices that appear every so often. They are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for just what you may be saying and sometimes even giving an perspective that is alternative. The external voices could be divided in to two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a quote that is direct therefore the indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase).
The reader has to know at all times whose voice they’ve been hearing. Can it be your internal voice or even the external voice of other authors?
You may wonder how you can include your personal voice but still sound academic when you’re currently talking about a area that is subject which you have little (or no) knowledge. Together with your voice does not mean that you need to say ‘I think’ or ‘in my opinion’.
Below are a few samples of the critical/analytical language you present other people’s ideas that you can use as your own internal voice when:
|if you are drafting your paragraphs, use a system that is colour-coding the only used here. It will help you ensure your academic voice is clear!|
You will gradually expand the language of your critical internal voice when you get more confident in using external sources. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides samples of a few more expressions to utilize when assessing external sources.
Editing centers on the big picture elements such as overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and whether or not the question happens to be answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the information of one’s essay, such as formatting, punctuation and grammar.
Everybody has their particular personal form of editing and proofreading. You need to focus on the kinds of errors you make by looking commonly in the marker’s comments on your previous work.
Some people proofread alone; some get other folks involved. Having others involved is a idea that is really good.